Chapter 4 Going Further with the Unix Shell

There isn’t a way things should be. There’s just what happens, and what we do.

— Terry Pratchett

The previous chapters explained how we can use the command line to do all of the things we can do with a GUI, and how to combine commands in new ways using pipes and redirection. This chapter extends those ideas to show how we can create new tools by saving commands in files and how to use a more powerful version of wildcards to extract data from files.

We’ll be continuing to work in the zipf project, which after the previous chapter should contain the following files:

zipf/
└── data
├── dracula.txt
├── frankenstein.txt
├── jane_eyre.txt
├── moby_dick.txt
├── sense_and_sensibility.txt
├── sherlock_holmes.txt
└── time_machine.txt

Deleting Extra Files

You may have additional files if you worked through all of the exercises in the previous chapter. Feel free to delete them or move them to a separate directory. If you have accidentally deleted files you need, you can download them again by following the instructions in Section 1.2.

4.1 Creating New Commands

Loops let us run the same commands many times, but we can go further and save commands in files so that we can repeat complex operations with a few keystrokes. For historical reasons, a file full of shell commands is usually called a shell script, but it is really just another kind of program.

Let’s start by creating a new directory for our runnable programs called bin/, consistent with the project structure described in Section 1.1.2.

$cd ~/zipf$ mkdir bin
$cd bin Edit a new file called book_summary.sh to hold our shell script: $ nano book_summary.sh

and insert this line:

head -n 17 ../data/moby_dick.txt | tail -n 8

Note that we do not put the $ prompt at the front of the line. We have been showing that to highlight interactive commands, but in this case we are putting the command in a file rather than running it immediately. Empty Line at the End of a File? You’ll often see scripts from many languages that end in an empty line. What you are seeing, though, is the last line of code ending in a newline character. This indicates to the computer that the code has ended. While this newline character is not required for shell scripts to work, and sometimes isn’t shown by coding tools, it does make it easier to view and modify scripts. When you are copying code from this book, remember to add an empty line at the end! Once we have added this line, we can save the file with Ctrl+O and exit with Ctrl+X. ls shows that our file now exists: $ ls
book_summary.sh

We can check the contents of the file using cat book_summary.sh. More importantly, we can now ask the shell to run this file:

$bash book_summary.sh Title: Moby Dick or The Whale Author: Herman Melville Editor: Release Date: December 25, 2008 [EBook #2701] Posting Date: Last Updated: December 3, 2017 Language: English Sure enough, our script’s output is exactly the same text we would get if we ran the command directly. If we want, we can pipe the output of our shell script to another command to count how many lines it contains: $ bash book_summary.sh | wc -l
     8

What if we want our script to print the name of the book’s author? The command grep finds and prints lines that match a pattern. We’ll learn more about grep in Section 4.4, but for now we can edit the script:

$nano book_summary.sh and add a search for the word “Author”: head -n 17 ../data/moby_dick.txt | tail -n 8 | grep Author Sure enough, when we run our modified script: $ bash book_summary.sh

we get the line we want:

Author: Herman Melville

And once again we can pipe the output of our script into other commands just as we would pipe the output from any other program. Here, we count the number of words in the author line:

$bash book_summary.sh | wc -w  3 4.2 Making Scripts More Versatile Getting the name of the author for only one of the books isn’t particularly useful. What we really want is a way to get the name of the author from any of our files. Let’s edit book_summary.sh again and replace ../data/moby_dick.txt with a special variable $1. Once our change is made, book_summary.sh should contain:

head -n 17 $1 | tail -n 8 | grep Author Inside a shell script, $1 means “the first argument on the command line.” If we now run our script like this:

$bash book_summary.sh ../data/moby_dick.txt then $1 is assigned ../data/moby_dick.txt and we get exactly the same output as before. If we give the script a different filename:

$bash book_summary.sh ../data/frankenstein.txt we get the name of the author of that book instead: Author: Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin) Shelley Our small script is now doing something useful, but it may take the next person who reads it a moment to figure out exactly what. We can improve our script by adding comments at the top: # Get author information from a Project Gutenberg eBook. # Usage: bash book_summary.sh /path/to/file.txt head -n 17$1 | tail -n 8 | grep Author

As in Python, a comment starts with a # character and runs to the end of the line. The computer ignores comments, but they help people (including our future self) understand and use what we’ve created.

Let’s make one more change to our script. Instead of always extracting the author name, let’s have it select whatever information the user specified:

# Get desired information from a Project Gutenberg eBook.
# Usage: bash book_summary.sh /path/to/file.txt what_to_look_for
head -n 17 $1 | tail -n 8 | grep$2

The change is very small: we have replaced the fixed string ‘Author’ with a reference to the special variable $2, which is assigned the value of the second command-line argument we give the script when we run it. Update Your Comments As you update the code in your script, don’t forget to update the comments that describe the code. A description that sends readers in the wrong direction is worse than none at all, so do your best to avoid this common oversight. Let’s check that it works by asking for Frankenstein’s release date: $ bash book_summary.sh ../data/frankenstein.txt Release
Release Date: June 17, 2008 [EBook #84]

4.3 Turning Interactive Work into a Script

Suppose we have just run a series of commands that did something useful, such as summarizing all books in a given directory:

$for x in ../data/*.txt > do > echo$x
>   bash book_summary.sh $x Author > done > authors.txt$ for x in ../data/*.txt
> do
>   echo $x > bash book_summary.sh$x Release
> done > releases.txt
$ls authors.txt book_summary.sh releases.txt $ mkdir ../results
$mv authors.txt releases.txt ../results Instead of typing those commands into a file in an editor (and potentially getting them wrong) we can use history and redirection to save recent commands to a file. For example, we can save the last six commands to summarize_all_books.sh: $ history 6 > summarize_all_books.sh
$cat summarize_all_books.sh 297 for x in ../data/*.txt; do echo$x;
bash book_summary.sh $x Author; done > authors.txt 298 for x in ../data/*.txt; do echo$x;
bash book_summary.sh $x Release; done > releases.txt 299 ls 300 mkdir ../results 301 mv authors.txt releases.txt ../results 302 history 6 > summarize_all_books.sh We can now open the file in an editor, remove the serial numbers at the start of each line, and delete the lines we don’t want to create a script that captures exactly what we actually did. This is how we usually develop shell scripts: run commands interactively a few times to make sure they are doing the right thing, then save our recent history to a file and turn that into a reusable script. 4.4 Finding Things in Files We can use head and tail to select lines from a file by position, but we also often want to select lines that contain certain values. This is called filtering, and we usually do it in the shell with the command grep that we briefly met in Section 4.1. Its name is an acronym of “global regular expression print,” which was a common sequence of operations in early Unix text editors. To show how grep works, we will use our sleuthing skills to explore data/sherlock_holmes.txt. First, let’s find lines that contain the word “Sherlock”. Since there are likely to be hundreds of matches, we will pipe grep’s output to head to show only the first few: $ cd ~/zipf
$grep Sherlock data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5 Here, Sherlock is our (very simple) pattern. grep searches the file line by line and shows those lines that contain matches, so the output is: Project Gutenberg's The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by Arthur Conan Doyle Title: The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard as I had pictured it from Sherlock Holmes' succinct description, "Good-night, Mister Sherlock Holmes." If we run grep sherlock instead, we get no output because grep patterns are case-sensitive. If we wanted to make the search case-insensitive, we can add the option -i: $ grep -i sherlock data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5
Project Gutenberg's The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by Arthur
Conan Doyle
Title: The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
*** START OF THIS PROJECT GUTENBERG EBOOK THE ADVENTURES OF
SHERLOCK HOLMES ***
To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard

This output is different from our previous output because of the lines containing “SHERLOCK” near the top of the file.

Next, let’s search for the pattern on:

$grep on data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5 Project Gutenberg's The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by Arthur Conan Doyle This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net Author: Arthur Conan Doyle In each of these lines, our pattern (“on”) is part of a larger word such as “Conan”. To restrict matching to lines containing on by itself, we can give grep the -w option (for “match words”): $ grep -w on data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5
One night--it was on the twentieth of March, 1888--I was
put on seven and a half pounds since I saw you."
that I had a country walk on Thursday and came home in a dreadful
"It is simplicity itself," said he; "my eyes tell me that on the
on the right side of his top-hat to show where he has secreted

What if we want to search for a phrase rather than a single word?

$grep on the data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5 grep: the: No such file or directory data/sherlock_holmes.txt:Project Gutenberg's The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes, by Arthur Conan Doyle data/sherlock_holmes.txt:This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with data/sherlock_holmes.txt:almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give it away or data/sherlock_holmes.txt:with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net data/sherlock_holmes.txt:Author: Arthur Conan Doyle In this case, grep uses on as the pattern and tries to find it in files called the and data/sherlock_holmes.txt. It then tells us that the file the cannot be found, but prints data/sherlock_holmes.txt as a prefix to each other line of output to tell us which file those lines came from. If we want to give grep both words as a single argument, we must wrap them in quotation marks as before: $ grep "on the" data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5
One night--it was on the twentieth of March, 1888--I was
drug-created dreams and was hot upon the scent of some new
"It is simplicity itself," said he; "my eyes tell me that on the
on the right side of his top-hat to show where he has secreted
pink-tinted note-paper which had been lying open upon the table.

Quoting

Quotation marks aren’t specific to grep: the shell interprets them before running commands, just as it expands wildcards to create filenames no matter what command those filenames are being passed to. This allows us to do things like head -n 5 "My Thesis.txt" to get lines from a file that has a space in its name. It is also why many programmers write "$variable" instead of just $variable when creating loops or shell scripts: if there’s any chance at all that the variable’s value will contain spaces, it’s safest to put it in quotes.

One of the most useful options for grep is -n, which numbers the lines that match the search:

$grep -n "on the" data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5 105:One night--it was on the twentieth of March, 1888--I was 118:drug-created dreams and was hot upon the scent of some new 155:"It is simplicity itself," said he; "my eyes tell me ... 165:on the right side of his top-hat to show where he has ... 198:pink-tinted note-paper which had been lying open upon ... grep has many options—so many, in fact, that almost every letter of the alphabet means something to it: $ man grep
GREP(1)           BSD General Commands Manual         GREP(1)

NAME
grep, egrep, fgrep, zgrep, zegrep, zfgrep -- file pattern
searcher

SYNOPSIS
grep [-abcdDEFGHhIiJLlmnOopqRSsUVvwxZ] [-A num] [-B num]
[-C[num]] [-e pattern] [-f file] [--binary-files=value]
[--color[=when]] [--colour[=when]] [--context[=num]]
[--label] [--line-buffered]
[--null] [pattern] [file ...]
...more...

We can combine options to grep as we do with other Unix commands. For example, we can combine two options we’ve covered previously with -v to invert the match—i.e., to print lines that don’t match the pattern:

$grep -i -n -v the data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5 2: 4:almost no restrictions whatsoever. You may copy it, give ... 6:with this eBook or online at www.gutenberg.net 7: 8: As we learned in Section 2.2, we can write this command as grep -inv, but probably shouldn’t for the sake of readability. If we want to search several files at once, all we have to do is give grep all of their names. The easiest way to do this is usually to use wildcards. For example, this command counts how many lines contain “pain” in all of our books: $ grep -w pain data/*.txt | wc -l
     122

Alternatively, the -r option (for “recursive”) tells grep to search all of the files in or below a directory:

$grep -w -r pain data | wc -l  122 grep becomes even more powerful when we start using regular expressions, which are sets of letters, numbers, and symbols that define complex patterns. For example, this command finds lines that start with the letter ‘T’: $ grep -E "^T" data/sherlock_holmes.txt | head -n 5
This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with
Title: The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes
To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard
The distinction is clear. For example, you have frequently seen

The -E option tells grep to interpret the pattern as a regular expression, rather than searching for an actual circumflex followed by an upper-case ‘T’. The quotation marks prevent the shell from treating special characters in the pattern as wildcards, and the ^ means that a line only matches if it begins with the search term—in this case, T.

Many tools support regular expressions: we can use them in programming languages, database queries, online search engines, and most text editors (though not Nano—its creators wanted to keep it as small as possible). A detailed guide of regular expressions is outside the scope of this book, but a wide range of tutorials are available online, and Goyvaerts and Levithan (2012) is a useful companion if you need to go further.

4.5 Finding Files

While grep finds things in files, the find command finds files themselves. It also has a lot of options, but unlike most Unix commands they are written as full words rather than single-letter abbreviations. To show how it works, we will use the entire contents of our zipf directory, including files we created earlier in this chapter:

zipf/
├── bin
│   ├── book_summary.sh
│   ├── summarize_all_books.sh
├── data
│   ├── dracula.txt
│   ├── frankenstein.txt
│   ├── jane_eyre.txt
│   ├── moby_dick.txt
│   ├── sense_and_sensibility.txt
│   ├── sherlock_holmes.txt
│   └── time_machine.txt
└── results
├── authors.txt
└── releases.txt

For our first command, let’s run find . to find and list everything in this directory. As always, . on its own means the current working directory, which is where we want our search to start.

$cd ~/zipf$ find .
.
./bin
./bin/summarize_all_books.sh
./bin/book_summary.sh
./results
./results/releases.txt
./results/authors.txt
./data
./data/moby_dick.txt
./data/sense_and_sensibility.txt
./data/sherlock_holmes.txt
./data/time_machine.txt
./data/frankenstein.txt
./data/dracula.txt
./data/jane_eyre.txt

If we only want to find directories, we can tell find to show us things of type d:

$find . -type d . ./bin ./results ./data If we change -type d to -type f we get a listing of all the files instead: $ find . -type f
./bin/summarize_all_books.sh
./bin/book_summary.sh
./results/releases.txt
./results/authors.txt
./data/moby_dick.txt
./data/sense_and_sensibility.txt
./data/sherlock_holmes.txt
./data/time_machine.txt
./data/frankenstein.txt
./data/dracula.txt
./data/jane_eyre.txt

Now let’s try matching by name:

$find . -name "*.txt" ./results/releases.txt ./results/authors.txt ./data/moby_dick.txt ./data/sense_and_sensibility.txt ./data/sherlock_holmes.txt ./data/time_machine.txt ./data/frankenstein.txt ./data/dracula.txt ./data/jane_eyre.txt Notice the quotes around "*.txt". If we omit them and type: $ find . -name *.txt

then the shell tries to expand the * wildcard in *.txt before running find. Since there aren’t any text files in the current directory, the expanded list is empty, so the shell tries to run the equivalent of

$find . -name and gives us the error message: find: -name: requires additional arguments We have seen before how to combine commands using pipes. Let’s use another technique to see how large our books are: $ wc -l $(find . -name "*.txt") 14 ./results/releases.txt 14 ./results/authors.txt 22331 ./data/moby_dick.txt 13028 ./data/sense_and_sensibility.txt 13053 ./data/sherlock_holmes.txt 3582 ./data/time_machine.txt 7832 ./data/frankenstein.txt 15975 ./data/dracula.txt 21054 ./data/jane_eyre.txt 96883 total When the shell executes our command, it runs whatever is inside $(...) and then replaces $(...) with that command’s output. Since the output of find is the paths to our text files, the shell constructs the command: $ wc -l ./results/releases.txt ... ./data/jane_eyre.txt

(We are using ... in place of seven files’ names in order to fit things neatly on the printed page.) This results in the output as seen above. It is exactly like expanding the wildcard in *.txt, but more flexible.

We will often use find and grep together. The first command finds files whose names match a pattern, while the second looks for lines inside those files that match another pattern. For example, we can look for Authors in all our text files:

$grep "Author:"$(find . -name "*.txt")
./results/authors.txt:Author: Bram Stoker
./results/authors.txt:Author: Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin)
Shelley
./results/authors.txt:Author: Charlotte Bronte
./results/authors.txt:Author: Herman Melville
./results/authors.txt:Author: Jane Austen
./results/authors.txt:Author: Arthur Conan Doyle
./results/authors.txt:Author: H. G. Wells
./data/moby_dick.txt:Author: Herman Melville
./data/sense_and_sensibility.txt:Author: Jane Austen
./data/sherlock_holmes.txt:Author: Arthur Conan Doyle
./data/time_machine.txt:Author: H. G. Wells
./data/frankenstein.txt:Author: Mary Wollstonecraft (Godwin)
Shelley
./data/dracula.txt:Author: Bram Stoker
./data/jane_eyre.txt:Author: Charlotte Bronte

We can also use $(...) expansion to create a list of filenames to use in a loop: $ for file in $(find . -name "*.txt") > do > cp$file $file.bak > done$ find . -name "*.bak"
./results/releases.txt.bak
./results/authors.txt.bak
./data/frankenstein.txt.bak
./data/sense_and_sensibility.txt.bak
./data/dracula.txt.bak
./data/time_machine.txt.bak
./data/moby_dick.txt.bak
./data/jane_eyre.txt.bak
./data/sherlock_holmes.txt.bak

4.6 Configuring the Shell

As Section 3.3 explained, the shell is a program, and it has variables like any other program. Some of those variables control the shell’s operations; by changing their values we can change how the shell and other programs behave.

Let’s run the command set and look at some of the variables the shell defines:

$set COMPUTERNAME=TURING HOME=/Users/amira HOMEDRIVE=C: HOSTNAME=TURING HOSTTYPE=i686 NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS=4 OS=Windows_NT PATH=/Users/amira/anaconda3/bin:/usr/bin: /bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin:/usr/local/bin PWD=/Users/amira UID=1000 USERNAME=amira ... There are many more than are shown here—roughly a hundred in our current shell session. And yes, using set to show things might seem a little strange, even for Unix, but if we don’t give it any arguments, the command might as well show us things we could set. By convention, shell variables that are always present have upper-case names. All shell variables’ values are strings, even those (such as UID) that look like numbers. It’s up to programs to convert these strings to other types when necessary. For example, if a program wanted to find out how many processors the computer had, it would convert the value of NUMBER_OF_PROCESSORS from a string to an integer. Similarly, some variables (like PATH) store lists of values. In this case, the convention is to use a colon ‘:’ as a separator. If a program wants the individual elements of such a list, it must split the variable’s value into pieces. Let’s have a closer look at PATH. Its value defines the shell’s search path, which is the list of directories that the shell looks in for programs when we type in a command name without specifying exactly where it is. For example, when we type a command like analyze, the shell needs to decide whether to run ./analyze (in our current directory) or /bin/analyze (in a system directory). To do this, the shell checks each directory in the PATH variable in turn. As soon as it finds a program with the right name, it stops searching and runs what it has found. To show how this works, here are the components of PATH listed one per line: /Users/amira/anaconda3/bin /usr/bin /bin /usr/sbin /sbin /usr/local/bin Suppose that our computer has three programs called analyze: /bin/analyze, /usr/local/bin/analyze, and /Users/amira/analyze. Since the shell searches the directories in the order in which they’re listed in PATH, it finds /bin/analyze first and runs that. Since /Users/amira is not in our path, Bash will never find the program /Users/amira/analyze unless we type the path in explicitly (for example, as ./analyze if we are in /Users/amira). If we want to see a variable’s value, we can print it using the echo command introduced at the end of Section 3.5. Let’s look at the value of the variable HOME, which keeps track of our home directory: $ echo HOME
HOME

Whoops: this just prints “HOME”, which isn’t what we wanted. Instead, we need to run this:

$echo$HOME
/Users/amira

As with loop variables (Section 3.3), the dollar sign before the variable names tells the shell that we want the variable’s value. This works just like wildcard expansion—the shell replaces the variable’s name with its value before running the command we’ve asked for. Thus, echo $HOME becomes echo /Users/amira, which displays the right thing. Creating a variable is easy: we assign a value to a name using “=”, putting quotes around the value if it contains spaces or special characters: $ DEPARTMENT="Library Science"
$echo$DEPARTMENT
Library Science

To change the value, we simply assign a new one:

$DEPARTMENT="Information Science"$ echo $DEPARTMENT Information Science If we want to set some variables automatically every time we run a shell, we can put commands to do this in a file called .bashrc in our home directory. For example, here are two lines in /Users/amira/.bashrc: export DEPARTMENT="Library Science" export TEMP_DIR=/tmp export BACKUP_DIR=$TEMP_DIR/backup

These three lines create the variables DEPARTMENT, TEMP_DIR, and BACKUP_DIR, and export them so that any programs the shell runs can see them as well. Notice that BACKUP_DIR’s definition relies on the value of TEMP_DIR, so that if we change where we put temporary files, our backups will be relocated automatically. However, this will only happen once we restart the shell, because .bashrc is only executed when the shell starts up.

What’s in a Name?

The ‘.’ character at the front of the name .bashrc prevents ls from listing this file unless we specifically ask it to using -a. The “rc” at the end is an abbreviation for “run commands”, which meant something really important decades ago, and is now just a convention everyone follows without understanding why.

While we’re here, it’s also common to use the alias command to create shortcuts for things we frequently type. For example, we can define the alias backup to run /bin/zback with a specific set of arguments:

alias backup=/bin/zback -v --nostir -R 20000 $HOME$BACKUP_DIR

Aliases can save us a lot of typing, and hence a lot of typing mistakes. The name of an alias can be the same as an existing command, so we can use them to change the behavior of a familiar command:

# Long list format including hidden files
alias ls='ls -la'

# Print the file paths that were copied/moved
alias mv='mv -v'
alias cp='cp -v'

# Request confirmation to remove a file and
# print the file path that is removed
alias rm='rm -iv'

We can find interesting suggestions for other aliases by searching online for “sample bashrc”.

While searching for additional aliases, you’re likely to encounter references to other common shell features to customize, such as the color of your shell’s background and text. As mentioned in Chapter 2, another important feature to consider customizing is your shell prompt. In addition to a standard symbol (like $), your computer may include other information as well, such as the working directory, username, and/or date/time. If your shell does not include that information and you would like to see it, or if your current prompt is too long and you’d like to shorten it, you can include a line in your .bashrc file that defines $PS1:

PS1="\u \w $" This changes the prompt to include your username and current working directory: amira ~/Desktop$

4.7 Summary

As powerful as the Unix shell is, it does have its shortcomings: dollar signs, quotes, and other punctuation can make a complex shell script look as though it was created by a cat dancing on a keyboard. However, it is the glue that holds data science together: shell scripts are used to create pipelines from miscellaneous sets of programs, while shell variables are used to do everything from specifying package installation directories to managing database login credentials. And while grep and find may take some getting used to, they and their cousins can handle enormous datasets very efficiently. If you would like to go further, Ray and Ray (2014) is an excellent general introduction, while Janssens (2014) looks specifically at how to process data on the command line.

4.8 Exercises

As with the previous chapter, extra files and directories created during these exercises may need to be removed when you are done.

4.8.1 Cleaning up

As we have gone through this chapter, we have created several files that we won’t need again. We can clean them up with the following commands; briefly explain what each line does.

$cd ~/zipf$ for file in $(find . -name "*.bak") > do > rm$file
> done
$rm bin/summarize_all_books.sh$ rm -r results

4.8.2 Variables in shell scripts

Imagine you have a shell script called script.sh that contains:

head -n $2$1
tail -n $3$1

With this script in your data directory, you type the following command:

$bash script.sh '*.txt' 1 1 Which of the following outputs would you expect to see? 1. All of the lines between the first and the last lines of each file ending in .txt in the data directory 2. The first and the last line of each file ending in .txt in the data directory 3. The first and the last line of each file in the data directory 4. An error because of the quotes around *.txt 4.8.3 Find the longest file with a given extension Write a shell script called longest.sh that takes the name of a directory and a filename extension as its arguments, and prints out the name of the file with the most lines in that directory with that extension. For example: $ bash longest.sh data/ txt

would print the name of the .txt file in data that has the most lines.

For this question, consider your data directory once again. Explain what each of the following three scripts would do when run as bash script1.sh *.txt, bash script2.sh *.txt, and bash script3.sh *.txt respectively.

# script1.sh
echo *.*
# script2.sh
for filename in $1$2 $3 do cat$filename
done
# script3.sh
echo $@.txt (You may need to search online to find the meaning of $@.)

4.8.5 Using grep

Assume the following text from The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes is contained in a file called excerpt.txt:

To Sherlock Holmes she is always THE woman. I have seldom heard
him mention her under any other name. In his eyes she eclipses
and predominates the whole of her sex. It was not that he felt
any emotion akin to love for Irene Adler.

Which of the following commands would provide the following output:

and predominates the whole of her sex. It was not that he felt
1. grep "he" excerpt.txt
2. grep -E "he" excerpt.txt
3. grep -w "he" excerpt.txt
4. grep -i "he" excerpt.txt

4.8.6 Tracking publication years

In Exercise 3.8.6 you examined code that extracted the publication year from a list of book titles. Write a shell script called year.sh that takes any number of filenames as command-line arguments, and uses a variation of the code you used earlier to print a list of the unique publication years appearing in each of those files separately.

4.8.7 Counting names

You and your friend have just finished reading Sense and Sensibility and are now having an argument. Your friend thinks that the elder of the two Dashwood sisters, Elinor, was mentioned more frequently in the book, but you are certain it was the younger sister, Marianne. Luckily, sense_and_sensibility.txt contains the full text of the novel. Using a for loop, how would you tabulate the number of times each of the sisters is mentioned?

Hint: one solution might employ the commands grep and wc and a |, while another might utilize grep options. There is often more than one way to solve a problem with the shell; people choose solutions based on readability, speed, and what commands they are most familiar with.

4.8.8 Matching and subtracting

Assume you are in the root directory of the zipf project. Which of the following commands will find all files in data whose names end in e.txt, but do not contain the word machine?

1. find data -name '*e.txt' | grep -v machine
2. find data -name *e.txt | grep -v machine

4.8.10 Finding files with different properties

The find command can be given criteria called “tests” to locate files with specific attributes, such as creation time, size, or ownership. Use man find to explore these, then write a single command using -type, -mtime, and -user to find all files in or below your Desktop directory that are owned by you and were modified in the last 24 hours. Explain why the value for -mtime needs to be negative.

4.9 Key Points

• Save commands in files (usually called shell scripts) for re-use.
• bash filename runs the commands saved in a file.
• $@ refers to all of a shell script’s command-line arguments. • $1, $2, etc., refer to the first command-line argument, the second command-line argument, etc. • Place variables in quotes if the values might have spaces or other special characters in them. • find prints a list of files with specific properties or whose names match patterns. • $(command) inserts a command’s output in place.
• grep selects lines in files that match patterns.
• Use the .bashrc file in your home directory to set shell variables each time the shell runs.
• Use alias to create shortcuts for things you type frequently.